Funding for this research was provided by:
Wellcome Trust (209075/Z/17/Z)
Medical Research Council, Department for International Development, and Wellcome Trust, UK (MR/V004832/1)
Medical Research Council (MR/V028618/1)
Academy of Medical Sciences, UK
Swedish Health Research Council, Sweden
TB REACH, Stop TB Partnership grant supported by Global Affairs Canada (STBP/TBREACH/GSA/2020-04)
Received: 2 February 2023
Accepted: 15 May 2023
First Online: 22 May 2023
: All methods were carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki as well as in accordance with relevant national guidelines and regulations.Need for ethical approval and informed consent were waived by the National TB Control Center of Lao PDR and the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Research Ethics Committee, UK (Ethical waiver 20–037) for studies conducted in Lao PDR.Studies in Nigeria were approved by the Health Research Ethics Committees of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK, and the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria (numbers 20–037 and FHREC/2020/01/29/10-04-20, respectively). All patients attending the centers were asked to read and confirm they had understood the study information leaflets and underwent consent procedures. Individuals were included after they had provided written informed consent to participate.The study in Brazil was approved by the Committee on Ethics in Research with Human Beings at the Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil (CAAE number 45432821.2.0000.5013) and the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Research Ethics Committee, UK (Ethical waiver 20–037), who both waived the need for informed consent.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare no competing interests.