Funding for this research was provided by:
Received: 6 April 2018
Accepted: 8 February 2019
First Online: 6 March 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All research undertaken using data obtained from the Clinical Practice Research Database (CPRD) is approved by, as appropriate, an ethics committee, a scientific committee, and the National Information Governance Board Ethics and Confidentiality Committee. The study protocol (protocol number: 16_217R2) was approved by the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee from the CPRD. The CPRD adheres to all applicable UK and European laws, National Health Service Guidelines, and other guidelines governing research. All CPRD data is anonymized, and additional compliance safeguards put in place include, but are not limited to, Charters, Privacy Enhancing Technologies, and legal arrangements, among others.
: Not applicable.
: LH is a consultant to AstraZeneca and owns AstraZeneca stock. AA was a full-time employee of AstraZeneca at the time of study conduct. SM is an employee of Evidera who provides consultancy services to AstraZeneca. MS and LQ are employees and stockholders of AstraZeneca. RL was an employee of AstraZeneca and owned AstraZeneca stock at the time of the study conduct. JBW serves on the speakers’ bureau for OPKO Renal.
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