Funding for this research was provided by:
Medtronic (Not applicable)
Kidney Research UK (Not applicable)
Medical Research Council (Not applicable)
Received: 19 December 2017
Accepted: 30 May 2019
First Online: 14 June 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical approval for ASTRAL was granted by the West Midlands Multicentre Research Ethics Committee, UK and the ethics committee relevant to each individual participating study centre. Ethical permission for the echocardiographic sub-study was obtained separately. Patient consent for participation in this sub-study was obtained separately from consent for the main trial, and included a specific patient information sheet and written consent form.
: Not applicable.
: Dr. Patrick Mark is an Editorial Board Member for BMC Nephrology.