Received: 4 April 2021
Accepted: 31 May 2021
First Online: 24 June 2021
: The Office of Regulatory Affairs of the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA) granted Institutional Review Board exemption for all research studies performed using Optum’s de-identified Clinformatics® Data Mart Database through the university (University of Pennsylvania’s protocol #819924) and waived the need for consent to participate due to the de-identified nature of Optum data.
: Not applicable.
: Dr. Pham Nguyen receives support from the National Institute of Health [Grant #R01 NS099129]. Dr. Abraham receives support from the National Institute of Health [Grant #R01 NS099129] and other compensation from the Parkinson’s Foundation. Dr. Weintraub receives support from the National Institutes of Health [Grant #R01 NS099129] and has also received research funding or support from Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research, Alzheimer’s Therapeutic Research Initiative (ATRI), Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study (ADCS), the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society (IPMDS); honoraria for consultancy from Acadia, Aptinyx, Biogen, Bracket, CHDI Foundation, Clintrex LLC, Enterin, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Ferring, Promentis, Sunovion, and Takeda; and license fee payments from the University of Pennsylvania for the QUIP and QUIP-RS. Dr. Willis receives financial support from National Institutes of Health [Grant #R01 NS099129], the Parkinson’s Foundation, Acadia, and the University of Pennsylvania. Mr. Thibault declared no competing interests for this work.