Funding for this research was provided by:
Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2018A0303131003)
Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou (201707010449)
Toka-Donghua Educational and Cultural Exchange Foundation
Setsuro Fujii Memorial of Medical Sciences and The Osaka Foundation for Promotion of Fundamental Medical Research
Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development
Japan Science and Technology Agency
Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (20K17953, 17K16626)
Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan (Grant-in-Aid for Cancer Research, 17K19810, 19K09451)
National Cancer Center Research and Development Fund
Grant-in-Aid for Cancer Research from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan
Received: 18 March 2020
Accepted: 28 June 2021
First Online: 9 July 2021
: Our study conformed to the ethical standards of the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University (No. 2012–438, No. 2014–44, No. 2016–86, No. 2017–251, No. 2018–320, No. 2020–1129), including the cooperating Chiba Prefectural Sawara Hospital, Chiba Rosai Hospital, Chiba Aoba Municipal Hospital, and Port Square Kashiwado Clinic. All participating studies, except the JPHC study, obtained written informed consent from all participants according to the protocols approved by their institutional ethical committees. The JPHC study was launched in 1990 before the enactment of ethical guidelines in Japan (2002); thus, obtaining written informed consent for blood sample collection (1990–1994) was not mandatory. After being provided with a written or verbal explanation, the participants were asked to provide blood for this study, and their informed consent was obtained in writing or verbally. Their verbal consent was recorded in the list during blood collection. Additionally, in accordance with the ethical guidelines enacted after blood collection, a research summary was published on the homepage, which guarantees the participants the opportunity to refuse participation (ExternalRef removed). The institutional ethical committees in National Cancer Center approved this study (Approved No. 2003–054).
: Not applicable.
: This work was performed in collaboration with Fujikura Kasei Co., Ltd. Go Tomiyoshi, Rika Nakamura, Natsuko Shinmen, and Hideyuki Kuroda are employees of Fujikura Kasei Co., Ltd.