Funding for this research was provided by:
Wellcome Trust Foundation (101815/Z/13/Z)
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1135522)
Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Received: 8 August 2017
Accepted: 8 April 2018
First Online: 16 April 2018
: GJ, ICS AJDB, CGV are affiliated to the International Center for Equity in Health, Post-Graduate Program in Epidemiology, Federal University of Pelotas.GF is affiliated to the Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health.
: Ethical approval was the responsibility of the institution that commissioned, funded, or carried out the surveys, which ensured the complete confidentiality of respondents. For each survey, verbal informed consent was sought by the interviewer by reading a prescribed statement to the respondent and recording in the questionnaire whether or not the respondent consented to participate. Permission were obtained from MEASURE DHS, MICS and RHS to download the data from their site and to use them. Ethical approval for the study was not necessary because the study was conducted using anonymous available public data, with no identifiable information of the surveys participants.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.