Funding for this research was provided by:
United States Agency for International Development (Leader with Associate Award A-00-08-00002-00)
Received: 12 February 2018
Accepted: 8 August 2018
First Online: 23 August 2018
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The studies were approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (IRB#00002549) as well as IRBs in each of the participating countries (Tanzania: National Institute of Medical Research [NIMR]; Zanzibar: Zanzibar Research Council [ZRC]; Kenya: Kenya Ministry of Health Institutional Review Board; Mozambique: Mozambican National Ethics Committee, National Institute of Health of Mozambique; Ethiopia: Ethiopian Public Health Association [EPHA]; Rwanda: Rwanda National Ethical Committee [RNEC]; Madagascar: Madagascar Ethical Committee, Ministry of Health of Mozambique). The MACRO International IRB also reviewed the Kenya study, since this was integrated into the national Service Provision Assessment (SPA) conducted by MEASURE DHS. As approved by the respective IRB’s, oral informed consent was obtained from study participants, and documented in data collection tools, prior to data collection.
: Not applicable.
: All authors declare no competing interests.
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