Funding for this research was provided by:
Philani (no number)
ELMA Foundation (no number)
DG Murray Trust (no number)
National Institutes of Health (T32MJ109205)
Received: 6 August 2018
Accepted: 26 December 2018
First Online: 11 January 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the University of California, Los Angeles (IRB#16–001362) and Stellenbosch University (N12/08/046). Voluntary informed consent was obtained, and, in the case where the mother was less than 18 years old, consent was also obtained from the parents/guardians of the adolescent mother.
: Not applicable.
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