Received: 3 January 2020
Accepted: 17 June 2020
First Online: 29 June 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The DHS program takes strict measures for protecting the privacy of all survey respondents. Procedures and questionnaires for standard DHS surveys have been reviewed and approved by the ICF International Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the IRB of the host country. ICF International IRB ensures that the survey complies with the U.S. ICF International provides both writing and oral informed consent to each survey respondent before the beginning of each survey question and biomarker tests. Each participant’s participation was voluntary. We obtained permission from Measure DHS to access the data and use it for our research.
: No consent to publish was needed for this study as we did not use any details, images or videos related to individual participants.
: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.