Funding for this research was provided by:
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5K12HD001271)
Doris Duke Charitable Foundation (Fund to Retain Clinical Scientists)
Received: 3 December 2019
Accepted: 30 October 2020
First Online: 11 November 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This de-identified data analysis was reviewed and approved by the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board, 18–0875. For this original WHOGS data collection each institution submitted the ethical clearance approval before commencing the project. Ethical clearance was provided by the institutional committees of the participating facilities, where available, or by the national review committees (available at: ExternalRef removed). In addition, ethical clearance was obtained from WHO’s Scientific and Ethical Review Group and Ethics Review Committee. Individual informed consent was not obtained, and the ethics committee waived the need for individual consent, as this was a cluster-level study, where data were extracted from medical records without any subject identification. However, key subject information (name, study number, birth date and delivery date) was recorded in the logbook at the institution level by the data collector to assist with follow-up if required.
: Not Applicable.
: The authors have no relationships to disclose that may be deemed to influence the objectivity of this paper and its review. The authors report no commercial associations, either directly or through immediate family, in areas such as expert testimony, consulting, honoraria, stock holdings, equity interest, ownership, patent-licensing situations or employment that might pose a conflict of interest to this analysis. Additionally, the authors have no conflicts such as personal relationships or academic competition to disclose. The findings presented in this paper represent the views of the named authors only, and not the views of their institutions or organizations. Regarding data, supporting data cannot currently be accessed.