Funding for this research was provided by:
the National Research Council of Thailand (-)
Received: 30 October 2019
Accepted: 27 February 2020
First Online: 18 March 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the Faculty of Nursing, Mahidol University (Ref. no. IRB-NS-2017/35.0911). 2) Medical and Sanitary Human Ethics Committee, Pathumthani Provincial Public Health Office, 3) Human Ethics Research Committee, Pathum Thani hospital, and 4) Human Ethics Research Committee, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthya hospital. After receiving the ethical approval, permission to access the patient’s profile or birth record was obtained from the director of each hospital. The researcher did not directly contact the patients or health care providers. Data extraction for health service factors were completed by research assistant (head nurse of labor room from each hospital) and verified data by using hospital records and nurse interviews to increase the accuracy of repeated data. No identifying markers were placed on the research instruments and the data was coded and presented as group data to ensure anonymity.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.