Funding for this research was provided by:
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1083531)
Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (R01HD084453-02)
Received: 3 July 2018
Accepted: 28 February 2020
First Online: 30 March 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Institutional review board (IRB) approval for this study was granted from Public Health Service- Ethical Review Board (PHS-ERB) and from the Health Ministry Screening Committee (HMSC) facilitated by Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR). These protocols were also registered prospectively with the Clinical Trial Registry – India (CTRI/2015/09/006219 - Registered 28 September 2015). Written and informed consent was obtained for every woman that agreed to participate. The interviewers explained the purpose of the study, and potential use of the findings of the study to the mothers in their local dialect and asked them whether they were willing to participate. Adolescent mothers younger than 18 years of age provided assent while a guardian provided formal verbal informed consent.
: Not applicable.
: Yamini Atmavilas is employed by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The contributions and inputs into this paper are solely her own and are not necessarily shared by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The other author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.