Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institutes of Health (U01 AI096299, U01 AI069919, U01 AI069924, D43 CA153717, U54 CA190153, P30 AI027763, T32 AR007098)
National Institute on Drug Abuse
National Institute of Mental Health
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health & Human Development
President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through the United States Agency for International Development (AID-623-A-12-0001)
Received: 21 March 2017
Accepted: 14 August 2017
First Online: 2 September 2017
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Approval for this research was granted by each site’s institutional review board. Ethics Committees that approved this study: University of California, San Francisco; Indiana University; Partners Human Research Committee (Harvard); Moi University; Mbarara University of Science and Technology; University of Abuja Teaching Hospital; National Hospital of Abuja; and Malawi National Health Sciences Research Committee.
: Not Applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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