Funding for this research was provided by:
the National Research Foundation of Korea (2016R1A2B4011623)
the 2015 Korean Urologic Oncology Society Grant
Received: 7 May 2019
Accepted: 15 August 2019
First Online: 9 September 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Seoul National University Hospital (IRB No. H-1806-081-951). We used the human bladder cancer materials stored in the cancer tissue bank of Seoul National University Hospital (IRB No. H1307–084-505). We obtained informed written consent from all research participants.
: Not applicable
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.