Received: 12 August 2019
Accepted: 27 October 2019
First Online: 11 November 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study is a secondary analysis for the data from PLCO program, and the PLCO study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the National Cancer Institute and the participating centers. The data exacts were di-identified prior to their release to study investigators.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.