Received: 28 August 2020
Accepted: 8 June 2021
First Online: 22 June 2021
: The study was not submitted for research ethics approval as the activities described were conducted as part of the National Inpatient Sample (NIS), which is part of the family of databases and software tools developed for the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) and uses de-identified data collected from hospitalized patients. The study activities obtained from NIS are exempt from the Johns Hopkins’ Institutional Review Board and do not require informed consent. For additional details, please refer to the following website links: ExternalRef removedExternalRef removed.
: Not applicable. All data using the National Inpatient Sample is de-identified.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests (financial and non-financial).