Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institutes of Health (1-D43-TW-009353-01)
Received: 19 July 2019
Accepted: 11 December 2019
First Online: 23 December 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study and its components were reviewed and approved by the IRBs of University of Ghana for KBTH site (MS-Et/M.7 - P4.5/214–2015 on March 10, 2015), University of Cape Coast for CCTH (UCCIRB/EXT/2015/02 on April 8, 2015) and at the KATH (CHRPE/ AP/021/15 on 25th January 2015) as well as the University of Michigan (HUM00097103 on February 16, 2015) which was the data coordinating center. All research was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Each participating newborn was enrolled through a verbal and written informed consent process of the mother.
: Not applicable.
: The last author (CAM) is a member of the Editorial Board (Associate Editor) of BMC Pediatrics. Otherwise, the authors have no competing interests.