Funding for this research was provided by:
Academy of Finland Flagship Programme (320162)
the Strategic Research Council at the Academy of Finland (303581)
the Academy of Finland Health from Cohorts and Biobanks Programme (308552)
Received: 4 July 2019
Accepted: 30 April 2020
First Online: 12 May 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical approval for the study was provided by the Ethics Committee of the Hospital District of Southwest Finland. The manuscript does not contain clinical studies. Permission to use register-based data was provided by National Institute for Health and Welfare.
: Not applicable.
: H-C Steinhausen has received speaker honoraria from Shire and Medice and book royalties from Cambridge University Press, Elsevier, Hogrefe, Huber, Klett, and Kohlhammer publishers. The other authors have no competing interests. The preliminary results on parental psychopathology were presented at the IACAPAP 2018 and NordCAP 2018 congresses. The NordCap abstract was published in the Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescence Psychiatry (Volume 6, Issue 3, ISSN (Online) 2245–8875, DOI ExternalRef removed, December 2018). None of the tables or results in the present manuscript have previously been published earlier in their current form.