Funding for this research was provided by:
the gaoyuan nursing grant support of shanghai municipal education (Hlgy1808kyx)
nursing talents program of shanghai ninth people’s hospital, shanghai jiao tong university school of medicine (JYHRC18-J05)
nursing program of shanghai ninth people’s hospital, shanghai jiao tong university school of medicine (JYHL20193D05; JYHL2020MS02)
the national key r&d program of china (2018YFC1106100, 2018YFC1106101)
the research grant of the shanghai science and technology committee (17DZ2260100)
shanghai jiao tong university school of medicine: nursing development program
clinical research plan of shdc (SHDC2020CR1009A)
Received: 4 January 2021
Accepted: 29 July 2021
First Online: 6 August 2021
: The research was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. According to the decision of the hospital ethics committee, no written consent for participation was required. The consent was implied through the completion of the questionnaire, which has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (approval number SH9H-2019-T289–2).
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.