Funding for this research was provided by:
United States Agency for International Development (AID-OAA-A-12-00058)
Received: 30 October 2017
Accepted: 26 March 2018
First Online: 11 April 2018
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical clearance for all three surveys was obtained from The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Institutional Review Board (IRB) and local IRB in Madagascar (Ministry of Health), Mali (Institut National de Recherche en Santé Publique), and Nigeria (National Health Research Ethics Committee). In all three countries, interviewers obtained oral informed consent from participants prior to the interviews. Written consent is uncommon for minimal risk studies in all three countries for two reasons: (1) literacy levels are generally low and (2) no personal identifiers were collected for the survey, so a participant’s signature on a consent form would represent an unnecessary identifier that could link a participant to her/his data. All three local IRBs approved this process.
: Not applicable
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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