Funding for this research was provided by:
National Cancer Institute (R03 CA201951)
Received: 4 September 2018
Accepted: 9 January 2019
First Online: 22 January 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine. In the National Lung Screening Trial, written informed consent was obtained from all individual participants. The current study was conducted on a de-identified data set.
: Not Applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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