Funding for this research was provided by:
National Natural Science Foundation of China (71273157)
Independent Innovation Foundation of Shandong University (HSSDB1502)
Received: 9 April 2018
Accepted: 9 January 2019
First Online: 17 January 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethics approval for this study was waived. The Shandong University Institutional Review Board ruled that no formal ethics approval was required. The Shandong University Institutional Review Board ruled that the need for consent was waived because the fitness tests were a mandatory part of each student’s physical education curriculum.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.