Funding for this research was provided by:
British Heart Foundation (PG/13/65/30440)
Received: 21 August 2018
Accepted: 10 January 2019
First Online: 16 January 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing was approved by the National Research Ethics Service and participants gave informed consent. Data are available to registered users of the UK Data Service.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.