Funding for this research was provided by:
The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (21119002, 15K21383)
The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan (H27-Lifestyle-ippan-002)
Tthe Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (18K17397)
The Health Care Science Institute, Japan
Received: 13 May 2018
Accepted: 9 April 2019
First Online: 23 April 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The Research Ethics Committee of The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Medicine approved the survey procedure of the J-SHINE (Japanese Study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood) (No. 3073). The questionnaire was computer-assisted and self-administered, unless participants requested a face-to-face interview. Participation in this study was voluntary, and written consent was obtained from each respondent. The J-SHINE Data Management Committee approved the authors’ secondary use of the data, with personally identifiable information deleted to ensure confidentiality.
: There are no details on individual participants within the manuscript.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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