Funding for this research was provided by:
Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (MOST 107-2410-H-010-001)
Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-06-21
Received: 20 December 2018
Accepted: 7 June 2019
First Online: 21 June 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The data used for the present study was approved by the Internal Review Board of Academia Sinica (AS-IRB-HS 02–14017), with which the third author of this study is affiliated. IRB was established in October 8th, 2012 in Academia Sinica. Before then, rigorous academic procedures were followed by the research team in the survey. First, the hosting institute (Institute of Sociology, Academia Sinica) send a formal written document to each of the Bureau of Education of the two counties and one city, and all three Bureau of Education approved the research project. Second, all principals of selected schools received the written official document from the respective Bureau of Education and gave the research team a formal consent to conduct the research. The research team then provided materials on the research procedure, purpose and selected class and students to the principal and the class teacher. In addition, the class teacher helped introduce the research team and distribute the questionnaires in class. All participated students in the class agreed to fill out the questionnaire. Furthermore, parents or legal guardians were also informed about the research project and gave their written consent for their children to participate. In addition, about 97% of these parents/legal guardians also participated in this research. The Chair of the IRB in Academia Sinica, Senior Research Fellow Dr. Ming-Chang Tsai (ExternalRef removed), approved this statement.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interest.