Funding for this research was provided by:
Shanghai Philosophy and Social Science Planning Project (2015ETY001)
Philosophy and Social Science Foundation of Hunan Province (16CTY012)
grant from the Program for Professors of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning (TP2014057)
Shanghai Pu Jiang Talents Program (15PJC065)
Received: 14 February 2019
Accepted: 26 July 2019
First Online: 1 August 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the Shanghai University of Sport (SUS) and permission to conduct the study was obtained from the teachers and principals of the participating schools. The IRB of SUS approved that the verbal consent is sufficient to conduct this study due to the fact that none of survey items related to personal ethic issue. All the children involved in the study, and their parents or guardians, were specifically advised that participation was completely voluntary. Verbal informed consent was obtained from all parents or guardians, and positive assent was obtained verbally from all the children prior to data collection. Data were collected and analyzed anonymously.
: All participants (parents) provided informed consent for their data to be used and published for research purposes.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.