Funding for this research was provided by:
United States Agency for International Development (Country Research Activity GHS-A-00-03-00020 to Boston University)
Received: 26 January 2019
Accepted: 31 July 2019
First Online: 16 August 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of Boston University Medical Center, the Hanoi School of Public Health, and the HCMC AIDS Committee. All participants provided written informed consent.
: Our study protocol and informed consent form (signed by all participants) included language stating that confidentiality would be protected to the greatest degree possible, and that no individual’s identifiable data would be published or used in conference abstracts, teaching materials, etc. This manuscript contains no individual identifiable data. Data are either provided by study group, or in the case of qualitative data, identified only by key population and city or province.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.