Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (U54GM088558)
Received: 20 December 2018
Accepted: 1 August 2019
First Online: 19 August 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study uses existing hospitalization data aggregated by state/age group (no individual-level data). No informed consent from the participants was sought, and no permission from the institutional IRB at the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health for the analyses of those existing, aggregate data was requested according to the corresponding IRB regulations: ExternalRef removed
: The study uses hospitalization data aggregated by state/age group (no individual-level data), and no consent for publication will be requested.
: Dr. Lipsitch reports grants from NIH/NIGMS, during the conduct of the study; personal fees from Affinivax, personal fees from Merck, grants and personal fees from Pfizer, grants from PATH Vaccine Solutions, outside the submitted work. The other authors report no conflicts of interests.