Funding for this research was provided by:
Forskningsrådet om Hälsa, Arbetsliv och Välfärd (2015-00048)
H2020 European Research Council (Grant agreement No 802631)
Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-11-28
Received: 31 July 2019
Accepted: 9 October 2019
First Online: 28 November 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study used secondary, publicly available data for the analyses. The use of secondary data for this particular project was ethically reviewed by <i>The Ethical Review Board in Umeå</i>, Umeå University, Sweden (reference nr: 2017/282–31).The original data collection underwent ethical review from an ethics review board or equivalent regulatory body and gained approval in each separate country according to national regulations, and sometimes in schools. Student participation in HBSC surveys was voluntary and active or passive consent was sought from school administrators, parents and children as per national human participant requirements. Responding children and their parents were given standardized information about the survey and that it was voluntary. The exact procedure for obtaining informed consent differed somewhat between countries, based on differing requests from national ethical committees. More information about can be found in the international report from 2009/10 [CitationRef removed] and at the documentation section of the website for the HBSC Data Management Centre [CitationRef removed, CitationRef removed].The survey was anonymous and the data files that are provided by HBSC on their data bank contain no personal identifiers and no school identifiers; access to data files are given only after registration on the website, and we have kept data files secure on one computer.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.