Funding for this research was provided by:
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1136774)
Received: 17 July 2019
Accepted: 11 October 2019
First Online: 30 October 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethics approval was received by research ethics committees at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (Ref 11835) and within the host countries: the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; the African Medical and Research Foundation Health Africa for the research in Nairobi, Kenya; and the Kenyan Medical Research Institute for the research in Siaya, Kenya. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, in addition to assent from legal minors with guardian consent (for those aged < 18 years). Compensation for participation in the research included refreshments, soap and/or reimbursement for transport costs, where applicable.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.