Funding for this research was provided by:
United States Agency for International Development (AID-OAA-C-13-00095)
Received: 23 July 2019
Accepted: 19 December 2019
First Online: 30 December 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: No formal ethical clearance was required since the study was based on secondary data analysis. The authors got permission to use the data by written consent from the DHS program website, ExternalRef removed. The ORC MACRO Institutional Review Board (IRB) reviewed and approved the 2006 UDHS. The ICF Macro IRB reviewed and approved the MEASURE Phase III Demographic and Health Surveys Program (also known as DHS-6), and the 2011 UDHS is categorized under that approval; UBOS carried out the 2011 UDHS within its mandate provided in the UBOS Act of 1998. The ICF IRB reviewed and approved the 2016 UDHS. The ORC MACRO, ICF Macro, and ICF IRBs complied with the United States Department of Health and Human Services regulations for the protection of human research subjects (45 CFR 46). Further details regarding the conduct of the study may be found in the 2016 UDHS report [CitationRef removed].
: All authors have approved the submission of the manuscript.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.