Funding for this research was provided by:
Department for International Development, UK Government (202344-102 and 202344-106)
Received: 8 March 2019
Accepted: 5 March 2020
First Online: 17 March 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The research protocol was approved by the Population Council Institutional Review Board (PCIRB – protocol #581), which has a Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) federal-wide assurance number of FWA00000279. The Population Council IRB has established procedures that adhere to the U.S. Federal guidelines for human subjects as set forth in Title 45, Part 46 of the Code of Federal Regulations (Department of Health and Human Services 1991). The protocol was also reviewed by the University of Zambia’s Research Ethics Committee (UNZA-REC – protocol 008–11-12) with federal-wide assurance number is FWA00000338. All study investigators and staff were certified in human subject’s protection training prior to study initiation. All study participants provided written consent if they were age 18 and older; assent and guardian written informed consent was obtained for all participants under the age of 18. A two-stage consent process was conducted, the first for the behavioral survey and the second for the biomarker data collection.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.