Funding for this research was provided by:
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1131125)
Foundation for the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health, Fogarty International Center
National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (K01AI130326)
Received: 13 December 2019
Accepted: 26 March 2020
First Online: 16 April 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board for Health Sciences Research, University of Virginia, USA (#14595) as well as the respective governmental, local institutional, and collaborating institutional ethical review boards at each site: Health, Safety and Research Ethics Committee, University of Venda; Department of Health and Social Development, Limpopo Provincial Government (South Africa); Medical Research Coordinating Committee, National Institute for Medical Research; Chief Medical Officer, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (Tanzania). Informed written consent forms were obtained from all participants prior to study enrollment. Along with child assent, informed written parental or guardian consent was obtained for each participating child on their behalf.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.