Funding for this research was provided by:
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1086544)
Received: 29 October 2019
Accepted: 26 March 2020
First Online: 15 April 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This secondary analysis of de-identified data was determined not to be human subjects research by PATH’s research determination committee and thus was exempt from ethics committee review.
: Not applicable.
: FH, FM, BM, JMR, JA, RS, PB, KT, and SDS declare no conflicts of interest. JJ was the co-owner and Deputy Manager of Onco Prev International, a Peruvian company, from 2012 through March 2017. Onco Prev offers cervical cancer screening services and in 2016 also began positioning for distribution of medical devices including colposcopes and the Liger thermo-coagulator. Onco Prev International did not commercialize any medical instrument during the time JJ was part of that company.