Funding for this research was provided by:
World Bank Early Learning Partnership (7170035)
Strategic Impact Evaluation Fund and Japan Trust (7186617)
USAID Rwanda (AID-696-16-00003)
Network of European Foundations (CVECF-BOSTON COLLEGE_2017)
ELMA Philanthropies (16-F0018-BC)
Received: 10 August 2019
Accepted: 13 April 2020
First Online: 6 May 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review boards of the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and Boston College as well as the Rwanda National Ethics Committee, National Committee for Science and Technology, and the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda. De-identified data will be available from the authors 6 months after collection of the 12-month follow-up. All adult study participants provided written informed consent for their own participation and primary caregivers gave written consent for participation of their children.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interest.