Funding for this research was provided by:
Nuffield Foundation (JUS/43052)
Received: 22 August 2019
Accepted: 7 May 2020
First Online: 20 May 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This project was reviewed by the Office for National Statistics Microdata Release Panel (ONS-MRP). The ethical acceptability of research projects is one of the aspects considered by the ONS-MRP. If there are concerns about the ethical acceptability of a piece of research, the ONS-MRP has the option of referring the project to the National Statistician’s Data Ethics Advisory Committee. Referral wasn’t considered necessary.
: The manuscript does not contain any individual person’s data. All results are aggregated. The ONS checks all outputs for any unintended disclosure of personal information and has approved the final version of the manuscript for publication.
: Rebecca Lacey is an Associate Editor for BMC Public Health.