Funding for this research was provided by:
National Planning Office of Philosophy and Social Science (19BTY077, 16ZDA227)
Shanghai Office of Philosophy and Social Science (A1904)
State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies for Comprehensive Utilization of Platinum Metals (11DZ2261100)
Received: 18 March 2020
Accepted: 13 July 2020
First Online: 25 July 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study protocol and procedure were approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the Shanghai University of Sport (SUS), and the permission to conduct the study was obtained from the teachers and principals of the participating schools. The IRB of SUS approved that the verbal consent is sufficient to conduct this study due to the fact that none of survey items related to personal ethic issue. All children and adolescents involved in the study, and their parents or guardians, were specifically advised that participation was completely voluntary. Verbal informed consent was obtained from all parents or guardians, and positive assent was obtained verbally from all children and adolescents prior to data collection. Data were collected and analysed anonymously.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.