Funding for this research was provided by:
University of California, San Francisco Population Health and Health Equity Scholar program (7504575)
Received: 24 March 2020
Accepted: 19 July 2020
First Online: 25 July 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The 2015 Malawi DHS and AIS protocol were reviewed and approved by the Ethical Review Committee of the Malawi Ministry of Health and the Institutional Review Board of ICF International. Consent for enrolment into the DHS was obtained by enumeration officials on behalf of the National Statistical Office of Malawi and the DHS program. Consent for HIV testing was also obtained from respondents and additional consent for the storage of blood samples for further testing was obtained. Consent for blood storage for further testing was independent of the consent for HIV testing. Therefore, one could opt-out for the storage of blood for further testing after consenting for the HIV test. In such cases, blood was discarded after confirmatory results for HIV test. Permission to use the de-identified data for the present study was obtained by the first author. The DHS program, where necessary, obtained assent from parents or guardians on behalf of children who were 15 or 16 years old prior to blood sample collection for HIV testing. No additional consents were obtained.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.