Received: 14 July 2020
Accepted: 1 December 2020
First Online: 7 December 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethics Committee of ORC Macro Inc. as well as Ethics Boards of partner organizations of the various countries, such as the Ministries of Health. The DHS follows the standards for ensuring the protection of respondents’ privacy. Inner City Fund International ensures that the survey complies with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services regulations for the respect of human subjects. The survey also reports that both verbal and written informed consent were obtained from the respondents. However, this was a secondary analysis of data and, therefore, no further approval was required for this study. Further information about the DHS data usage and ethical standards are available at ExternalRef removed.
: No consent to publish was needed for this study as we did not use any details, images or videos related to individual participants. In addition, data used are available in the public domain.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Abdul-Aziz Seidu and Bright Opoku Ahinkorah, are members of the editorial board of this journal.