Funding for this research was provided by:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (HHSN268201800003I, HHSN268201800005I, HHSN268201800007I, HHSN268201800006I, HHSN268201800004I)
Received: 25 June 2020
Accepted: 13 January 2021
First Online: 26 January 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Participating centers (Northwestern University, University of Alabama Birmingham, University of Minnesota, and Kaiser Foundation Research Institute) provided ethics approval for the CARDIA study, and all participants provided written informed consent to participate.
: Not applicable.
: MDH has received support from the American Heart Association, Verily, and AstraZeneca for work unrelated to this research. MDH has received salary support from the American Medical Association for his role as an associate editor for JAMA Cardiology. No other authors have any disclosures to report.