Funding for this research was provided by:
Medical Research Council (RD1843, 102215/2/13/2)
Cancer Research UK (C60153/A23895)
United Kingdom Clinical Research Collaboration (MR/KO232331/1)
Received: 14 August 2020
Accepted: 18 August 2021
First Online: 3 September 2021
Change Date: 30 September 2021
Change Type: Correction
Change Details: A Correction to this paper has been published:
Change Details: https://doi.org/10.1186/S12889-021-11764-Y
: This study used secondary data analysis and the authors did not collect any primary data for this work. The ethics statements for the birth cohorts used in this study are reported here.<b>BCS70</b>: All procedures were approved by the London Multi-Centre Research at the 2000 wave (process 98/2/120) and by an internal committee from the Centre for Longitudinal Studies, Institute of Education, University of London, for the 2004 wave. Participants provided verbal consent during the interviews. Before the interviews, study members were sent an advance letter advising them about the survey. The letter was accompanied by detailed information about the survey and the cohort members were free to request further information, or to opt out of the survey at this point. Also, the cohort members could request further information or refuse involvement during all the survey process, including when the interviewer attempted to make an appointment to visit, when the interviewer visited and at any point during the administration of any elements of the surveys. The verbal consent was approved as it was a routine since the beginning of the cohort, in 1970.<b>ALSPAC</b>: Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Ethics and Law Committee and local Research Ethics Committees: Bristol and Weston Health Authority: E1808 Children of the Nineties: Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). (28th November 1989), Southmead Health Authority: 49/89 Children of the Nineties - “ALSPAC”. (5th April 1990), Frenchay Health Authority: 90/8 Children of the Nineties. (28th June 1990), 15 Year Clinic: Central & South Bristol Research Ethics Committee (UBHT): 06/Q2006/53 Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), Hands on Assessments: Teen Focus 3 (Focus 15+). (7th August 2006) (Confirmed 15th September 2006) and 17 Year clinic: North Somerset & South Bristol Research Ethics Committee: 08/H0106/9 Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), Hands on Assessments: Teen Focus 4 (Focus 17+) (18th November 2008) National Research Ethics Service Committee South West – Frenchay: 14/SW/1173 ALSPAC Focus at 24+ (24th February 2015, confirmed 20th March 2015). Informed consent for the use of data collected via questionnaires and clinics was obtained from participants following the recommendations of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Ethics and Law Committee at the time.Study participants who complete questionnaires consent to the use of their data by approved researchers. Up until age 18 an overarching parental consent was used to indicate parents were happy for their child (the study participant) to take part in ALSPAC. Consent for data collection and use was implied via the written completion and return of questionnaires. Study participants have the right to withdraw their consent for specific elements of the study, or from the study as a whole, at any time.Ethical approval for administrative permission to access the data was granted as part of a larger programme of work on multiple risk behaviour by the ALSPAC Law and Ethics Committee (ALEC) for study number B1369.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare no competing interests.