Received: 30 December 2020
Accepted: 22 August 2021
First Online: 10 September 2021
: Ethical protocols were approved by the Faculty of Humanities Ethics Review Committee, University of Cape Town (PSY2014–001) and the Social Sciences and Humanities Inter-divisional Research Ethics Committee, University of Oxford (SSD/CUREC2/11–40), the European Research Council (ERC-2012-StG 313421-PACCASA) and South African provincial Departments of Social Development and Basic Education. The study and all methods were performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Consent for participation and was obtained. Written voluntary informed consent was obtained from all participants (parents and adolescents), and consent procedures were read aloud for those with limited literacy. Confidentiality was maintained, except if participants were at risk of significant harm or request assistance.
: Consent for publication was obtained.
: LC, JD and JML are co-developers of the PLH for Adolescents programs, which are licensed under a Creative Commons 4.0 Non-commercial No Derivatives license. JML is also the Executive Director of Clowns without Borders South Africa, a non-profit institution responsible for the dissemination of the program. JML also receives occasional fees for providing training and supervision to facilitators and coaches. JML, YS, FM, and LC have participated/are participating in a number of research studies involving the programme as investigators, and the Universities of Oxford, Glasgow and Cape Town receive research funding for these. Conflict is avoided by declaring these potential conflicts of interest and by conducting and disseminating rigorous, transparent and impartial evaluation research on both this and other similar parenting programs. AAM and OG have no competing interests or other interests that might be perceived to influence the results of the study. No profit or financial gain will be made from this programme.