Received: 16 August 2022
Accepted: 25 October 2022
First Online: 8 November 2022
: This study was conducted in accordance with the procedures approved by the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the ethical standards of the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. The KPNC IRB approved a waiver of the requirement to obtain informed consent for the collection and use of KPNC Member Health Survey data under [§46.116(d)] and waived the requirement to obtain Privacy Rule Authorization for use and disclosure of protected health information (PHI) as allowed under [45 CFR 164.512(i)(1)(i)].
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.