Received: 7 June 2022
Accepted: 10 November 2022
First Online: 18 November 2022
: Ethics approval for this research was obtained from the Behavioural Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia (certificate number: H20–00831).The datasets used from the BC Provincial Overdose Cohort were formed from the public health emergency that was declared by the provincial health officer in 2016. Consent to participate was not required from persons in the Cohort due to the public health emergency and BC Centre for Disease Control’s ongoing surveillance activities, and informed consent for this study is waived by the Behavioural Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia.All methods were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.