Funding for this research was provided by:
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme (633212)
Received: 15 June 2019
Accepted: 9 June 2020
First Online: 16 June 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The ECRHS study was approved by the local ethics committees in each region: Reykjavík, Iceland (The National Bioethics Committee, Reykjavík, Iceland); Umea, Uppsala, Gothenburg, Sweden (Regional Ethical Committee in Uppsala, Sweden); Erfurt, Hamburg, Germany (Ethic Committee of the Bavarian State Chamber of Physicians, Germany); Norwich, UK (Norwich District Ethics Committee); Ipswich, UK (Ipswich–East Suffolk Local Research Ethics Committee); Grenoble, France (Ethics committee Paris Bichat-Claude Bernard); Barcelona, Spain (Comité Ético de Investigación Clínica del Instituto Municipal de Asistencia Sanitaria, Barcelona, Spain); Albacete, Spain (Comité de Ética e Investigación de Complejo Hospitalario de Albacete, Spain); Oviedo, Spain (Comité Ético de Investigación Clínica Regional, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain); Galdakao, Spain (Comité Ético de Investigación del Hospital de Galdakao, Spain); and Basel, Switzerland (Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences and the ethics committee of Basel). All participants provided informed written consent.The NFBC1966 study was approved by the ethics committees in Oulu (Finland) and Oxford (UK) universities. All participants provided informed written consent.The SAPALDIA study was approved by the Overall Regional Ethics Commission for Clinical Medicine (Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences) and by the respective cantonal ethical committee for each survey. All participants provided informed written consent.The UK Biobank was approved by the U.K. National Research Ethics Service Committee NorthWest – Haydock. All participants provided informed written consent.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.