Funding for this research was provided by:
Received: 9 January 2020
Accepted: 2 July 2020
First Online: 11 July 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All study data were accessed with protocols compliant with US patient confidentiality requirements, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 regulations (HIPAA). The databases used in the study are fully de-identified and compliant with the HIPAA. Research using the MarketScan Research Databases falls under Title 45 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 46.101(b)(4) exemption from Institutional Review Board review because the databases contain only information that cannot be used to identify study subjects. As the data were de-identified, consent from patients was not sought.
: Not applicable.
: MC is employed by Genentech, Inc. AMK and KD are employed by IBM Watson Health and received funding from Genentech, Inc. to conduct this study.