Funding for this research was provided by:
Programme Grants for Applied Research (RP-PG-0608-10076)
Received: 24 February 2020
Accepted: 28 January 2021
First Online: 16 February 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethics approval was granted by Ethical approval was granted by Oxford Central REC (11/SC/0232). Written consent was from participants not applicable.
: Not applicable.
: MU is chief investigator or co-investigator on multiple previous and current research grants from the UK National Institute for Health Research, Arthritis Research UK and is a co-investigator on grants funded by the Australian NHMRC. He is an NIHR Senior Investigator. He has received travel expenses for speaking at conferences from the professional organisations hosting the conferences. He is a director and shareholder of Clinvivo Ltd. that provides electronic data collection for health services research. He is part of an academic partnership with Serco Ltd. related to return to work initiatives. He is a co-investigator two NIHR funded grants receiving support in kind from Styrker Ltd. He was until March 2020 an editor of the NIHR journal series, and a member of the NIHR Journal Editors Group, for which he received a fee. He has published multiple papers on low back pain some of which are referenced in this paper. He was corresponding author for the UK BEAM trial that is included in the database.SP is a director of Health Psychology Services Ltd. that provides psychological treatments for a range of conditions.