Received: 11 September 2020
Accepted: 14 April 2021
First Online: 3 May 2021
: This study was approved by each institutional review board and all experiments were performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the amended Declaration of Helsinki. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committee of each hospital (Gamagori City Hospital: approval No. 368-1, Tsushima City Hospital: approval No. 2019-3, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital: approval No. 1360). At each site, the chair of the ethics committee gave administrative permission for access to the raw data.In this study, we adopted an opt-out method for obtaining patient consent, and obtained permission from the ethics committee of each institution. This research falls into the category of “research that does not use samples obtained from human subjects” in the “Ethical Guidelines for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects” under “research using existing samples and information held at the institution”. In accordance with the guidance, we published the disclosure document of this research on each hospital’s website for 30 days from the date of hospital director’s approval, notifying the research subjects and guaranteeing them the opportunity to refuse the research.
: Not applicable.
: The authors, RG and AK, are employees of Search Space Co. Ltd., a startup company, the eventual products and services of which will be related to the subject matter of the article<b>.</b> No authors own shares in the above companies. SH, the last author, represents the AI research division in the nonprofit organization (NPO) Nagoya Orthopedic Regional Healthcare Support Center, (ExternalRef removed). NPO Nagoya Orthopedic Regional Healthcare Support Center, AI Research Division is a research division established for multi-center collaborative research. With the exception of two Search Space Co. Ltd. employees and one NPO employee, no authors received compensation from these organizations.