Funding for this research was provided by:
Novo Nordisk Fonden (NNF19OC0055183)
Received: 17 June 2021
Accepted: 28 October 2021
First Online: 6 November 2021
: The study was approved by the American College of Surgeons and the Massachusetts General Hospital Institutional Review Board (protocol approval #2021P001182).
: Not applicable. All patient data is de-identified and assembled in in a quality control database through the HIPAA compliant ACS NSQIP collaborative. Patient consent for NSQIP participation is provided in writing as per local NSQIP participating hospital protocols.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.