Received: 30 November 2020
Accepted: 25 March 2021
First Online: 7 April 2021
: Routine administrative data from Hospital Episode Statistics provided by NHS Digital was used (as permitted by Data Access Request Service (DARS) agreement DARS-NIC-170211-Z1B4J). No patient identifiable information was used and ethical approval was not sought or required from an ethics committee.
: Not applicable.
: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at ExternalRef removed and declare: Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, the employing institution of all authors, is contracted as External Assessment Centre to the NICE Medical Technologies Evaluation Programme (MTEP) and is contracted by Academic Health Science Network North East and North Cumbria to develop methodologies and case studies relating to “evaluation in practice” in the context of using routine healthcare datasets and, where appropriate, clinical registries, to assess outcomes and adoption of novel interventions; AJS reports grants from NIHR and Wellcome Trust and outside the submitted work; KK and JB report grants from NIHR outside the submitted work; no other financial relationships with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous 3 years; no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.